Apr 28 2022
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Steel is iron that removed most of the impurities and contains a consistent concentration of carbon. Those impurities like phosphorus, sulfur, silica, oxygen, nitrogen, and copper weaken steel significantly. Steel is one the most recyclable material in the world because of it economically favorable and the process does not downgrade it but make it same again. Steel is sometimes also referred to as iron alloy but that would include wrought iron and cast iron.

Cast iron posses higher content of carbon(2% to 4%) and impurities which make it hard, brittle and non-malleable whereas wrought iron with low carbon content less than 0.08% are more malleable and higher tensile strength. The famous Eiffel Tower in France was mainly built from this wrought iron and was once held the tallest man-made structure in the world. Wrought iron was once favorite material to be used on structure building but now is greatly replace with mild steel because of advanced technology. All this was to thank Bessemer converter in the 19th century and the following advanced improvement which makes the production of steel much more economical and quicker. The advantages of steel over other iron alloy is greater balanced in tensile strength, ductility, and versatility.

Steel is normally separated into two type, one is carbon steel and another stainless steel. Carbon steel or plain-carbon steek is the most productive steel in steel manufacturing. Carbon steel is the composition of mostly iron and carbon. It can be classified into 4 type by the difference of carbon contained in it, low-carbon steel(0.05%-0.30%), medium-carbon steel(0.3%-0.8%), high-carbon steel(0.8%-2.0%), and ultra-high-carbon steel(3.25%-4%). Low-carbon steel or normally refer to as mild steel is the most common form of carbon steel because the price is much more economical and able to use on many applications. Mild steel is so versatile because it's easy to work with, ductile and less brittle. After a form or shape is made, carburizing can be applied to the mild steel to increase its surface hardness. It usually used to make structural steel like roof covering, reinforced cement concrete, rail track, transmission towers, etc. High carbon steel has a greater hardness than low carbon steel and also able to withstand shocks and vibrations. It has great in strength so it was usually used for making tools such as drills, cutting tools, heavy machinery, etc. Unlike stainless steel, most carbon steel has poor corrosion resistance so corrosive environment is not recommended unless certain protective coating, waterproofing or paint is used.
Stainless steel also refers to as inox steel is a type of steels that have good corrosion resistance than carbon steel. This type of steel alloy contains sufficient chromium will react with oxygen to create a film that provides corrosion resistance by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and thus blocking inert corrosion at the same time. The higher the chromium levels the higher the corrosion resistant. Although stainless steel is corrosion resistant, it still corrodes uniformly when exposed to basic or acidic solutions. Some stainless steel is only stainless steel plated which means any cut or scratched too deep would expose the inner layer and result in corrosion. Stainless steel is usually separate into five main categories based on their crystalline structure: Austenitic Stainless Steel, Ferritic Stainless Steel, Duplex Stainless steel, Precipitation-hardening Stainless Steel, and Martensitic stainless steel. Often stainless steel is to substitute the use of carbon steel example, tube, pipe, sheet, automobile part, fasteners, channel, flat bar, door, etc for a much more safety and prolong usage purposes.
Steel structure or product has the following outstanding advantage:

high tensile strength

Easily fabricated and mass produce

Flexible to mold

durable if maintained well

100% recyclable

Fire resistance

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Mild Steel

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Sheet & Plate Steel

Structural Steel

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Channel Steel

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