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steel-golden-gate-bridge
Material

Steel

Sep 11 2019
Steel is iron that removed most of the impurities and contains a consistent concentration of carbon. Those impurities like phosphorus, sulfur, silica, oxygen, nitrogen, and copper weaken steel significantly. Steel is one the most recyclable material in the world because of it economically favorable and the process does not downgrade it but make it same again. Steel is sometimes also referred to as iron alloy but that would include wrought iron and cast iron.

Introduction
Cast iron posses higher content of carbon(2% to 4%) and impurities which make it hard, brittle and non-malleable whereas wrought iron with low carbon content less than 0.08% are more malleable and higher tensile strength. The famous Eiffel Tower in France was mainly built from this wrought iron and was once held the tallest man-made structure in the world. Wrought iron was once favorite material to be used on structure building but now is greatly replace with mild steel because of advanced technology. All this was to thank Bessemer converter in the 19th century and the following advanced improvement which makes the production of steel much more economical and quicker. The advantages of steel over other iron alloy is greater balanced in tensile strength, ductility, and versatility.

Applications
Steel is normally separated into two type, one is carbon steel and another stainless steel. Carbon steel or plain-carbon steek is the most productive steel in steel manufacturing. Carbon steel is the composition of mostly iron and carbon. It can be classified into 4 type by the difference of carbon contained in it, low-carbon steel(0.05%-0.30%), medium-carbon steel(0.3%-0.8%), high-carbon steel(0.8%-2.0%), and ultra-high-carbon steel(3.25%-4%). Low-carbon steel or normally refer to as mild steel is the most common form of carbon steel because the price is much more economical and able to use on many applications. Mild steel is so versatile because it's easy to work with, ductile and less brittle. After a form or shape is made, carburizing can be applied to the mild steel to increase its surface hardness. It usually used to make structural steel like roof covering, reinforced cement concrete, rail track, transmission towers, etc. High carbon steel has a greater hardness than low carbon steel and also able to withstand shocks and vibrations. It has great in strength so it was usually used for making tools such as drills, cutting tools, heavy machinery, etc. Unlike stainless steel, most carbon steel has poor corrosion resistance so corrosive environment is not recommended unless certain protective coating, waterproofing or paint is used.
acrylic-color
Material

Acrylic

Sep 11 2019
Acrylic or acrylic glass is also known by its trade name Crylux, Plexiglas, Perspex, Acrylite, and Lucite or the scientific name Polymethyl Methacrylate(PMMA). The acrylic is a transparent plastic that often uses as the replacement for glass as it has characteristics of lightweight and also shatterproof. The material can also be used as a casting resin to make waterproofing, translucent effect, etc. Some modern painting can be found contain acrylic as the acrylic doesn't dissolve in a humid environment and hence able to protect the painting.

Introduction
Acrylic glass has the characteristic of high transparency, high tensile strength, high flexibility, polishable, heat and chemical resistance, and UV tolerance. Although most acrylic glass tends to be brittle when under high impact force but the material itself is much more light and stronger than most glass and able add color and texture to the surface. When the acrylic glass surface contains any scratches it would only need a simple polish and the scratch will be gone. Furthermore, acrylic is more favorable to be export since is stronger than glass and lesser in weight which is very ideal for e-commerce.
aggregates-gravel-decorative-flooring
Material

Aggregates and Infill

Aug 28 2018
Aggregate is a granular material that acts as a basis and infills in concrete for the used in construction. It generally separated into fine aggregates and coarse aggregates. Normally fine aggregate particles that less than 4.75mm in diameter. Natural sand, such as river sand, sea sand, valley sand and artificial sand ground from hard rock can be the fine aggregate. While coarse aggregate particles require diameter size larger than 4.75mm are usually obtained from a crushed stone. The material that used up as coarse aggregate is normally gravel and pebbles.

Introduction
A mixture like an asphalt and concrete uses these aggregate as the additives. All these aggregate serves as reinforcement and also add strength towards a composite material. Concrete mix usually contains 60% to 80% of aggregate. If it is not added when doing a cement mixture, the mixture would not solidify and thus cannot be used. Bigger aggregates or coarse aggregates usually help in maintaining the strength of the concrete but reduces the amount of cement used and also the cost of the concrete mix too. The strength of gravel aggregates in concrete is higher compared to pebble concrete but the process of getting it from crushed stone make its prices higher than the pebble materials.
drywall-gypsum-board-false-ceiling
Material

Gypsum

Sep 1 2018
Gypsum is an evaporite mineral that looks like white sand and usually found in massive beds that appear in pink, yellow or gray due to impurities. Although gypsum is usually the material that used to make drywall, the mineral itself actually contains a large amount of water which make the chemical composite is CaSO4 2H2O which similar to Anhydrite(CaSO4). The reason behind this is that the water in gypsum the is in crystalline form which ends up making individual molecules of gypsum to be dry. These crystalline water also provide the gypsum with a very good fire-resistance. When a gypsum product is getting hot, the crystalline water will destabilize and begin vaporizing as the water reaches its boiling point resulting in product cooling hence protecting product itself. The construction product that uses gypsum is usually excellent in sound insulation, heat insulation, and fire-resistance. The gypsum can also produce in a paste form to harden or solidified certain product or material. Gypsum usually uses in the manufacturing of wallboard(drywall, gypsum board), cement additive, plaster of Paris(pasty composition), hardening retarder in portland cement, etc.
hdpe-pipe
Material

High Density polyethylene HDPE

Sep 7 2018
Polyethylene(PE) is a common polymer in plastics. It was widely used in our daily life for many different purposes. PE is usually produced in different grade for different usage. HDPE or high-density polyethylene was composed of mostly linear polymers. This linear form has the better characteristic on tighter, denser and more organized structures compare to Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) and Low-density polyethylene (LDPE). HDPE is a harder plastic with a high melting point and sinks in the alcohol-water mixture. HDPE is also good at electrical insulation, cold resistance, chemical stability, resistant to corrosion, wear resistance and high tensile strength. This material is commonly recycled and has an SPI resin ID code of 2. HDPE can be produced in a different color but the original is translucent. It is widely used in today's, piping, geomembranes, containers, plastic lumber(PL), etc.
soundproofing-foam
Sep 13 2018
Polymer foam or generally refer as foam in construction term is a solid or liquid product that formed from a polymer material. The solidity of foam is dependent on the amount of air bubble or air tunnels in it when mixing the solid and gas phase of the polymer material. It is a very versatile material ranging from food containers to sound insulation material for room or building.

Introduction
The common polymer that made up this foam includes polystyrene (PS), polyurethane (PU), polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), etc. This kind of material is so widely used because they are usually low in density, lightweight and can be made into a flexible or rigid product. Certain polymer materials also able to provide the extra feature of thermal resistant, sound insulation, shock absorption, moisture resistance, etc. Although polymer foam is very useful in many fields, it raises a concern in construction for it's usually not being environmentally friendly and not a green product.

Applications
One of the most common forms is the soundproof foam or some also refer to acoustic foam. The foam is usually in egg box style like damping structure is design to increase the distance between source and receiver by acting as a noise barrier to damping the sound wave. Soundproofing foam does not entirely block the sound through a panel or wall but rather good at reducing the echoes in a room. Although there are still better soundproofing methods like sheetrock and brick materials, adding mass and renovate a complete room or house are not likely to be happening if you want a fast and economical solution. The foam can be made in several different thickness, sizes, and colors. It is commonly attached to wall, ceiling and also a door. Certain soundproofing foam also got the extra feature of fire retardants which slow down or stop the fire spread. Commonly Space or room that commonly using this foam is the gymnasium and also the music studio.
geomembrane-water-reservoir
Material

Geosynthetics

Sep 18 2018
Geosynthetics refers to a synthetic product that made from a polymeric material that helps in most civil engineering purposes. The polymers that manufacture the geosynthetic product are mainly polyethylene(PE), polypropylene(PP), polyvinyl chloride(PVC), polystyrene(PS), polyethylene terephthalate(PET), polyamide Nylon(PA).

Introduction
In overall, geosynthetics usually provide the important functions of separation, drainage, moisture barrier, reinforcement, and filtration. The installation is usually placed inside the soil, surface or as a separation layer of different soil which eventually strengthening or protecting the soil from erosion. The application of geosynthetic is usually found on transportation, environmental, marine, geotechnical and other infrastructure such as bridge, railroad, waste landfill, revetments, canals, etc. Geosynthetics contain many products with different function so in general, these synthetic products are separated into geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, geomembranes, geocomposites, and others.

Applications
Geotextiles is one of the largest produce geosynthetics. They are indeed produced as the traditional way of textiles but the difference is that the material is synthetic fiber rather than silk, cotton, flax, ramie or wool. The production method results on geotextile porous to water flow and enables it to provide the major function of strengthening and protecting the soil by draining the water in it without mixing or losing the soil. Geotextiles are usually lightweight, easy to work with, high tensile strength, corrosion resistance and mildew resistant. However, normal geotextiles usually have a low UV resistance so a direct UV radiation will easily be aging the product. Often adding coating or avoid direct sunlight exposure will preserve its durability and wear resistant. Geotextile is commonly produced in sheet form(packaged in roll form) and after it produces it can be made into other useful product such as geotextile sandbag.
aluminium-composite-panel-building-exterior
Material

Aluminium

Sep 20 2018
Aluminium is a shiny metal element that conducts heat and electricity very well. This metal is so malleable that is able to form in various shapes and size due to its ductility. Although aluminium electric conductivity is not as good as copper, the heat conductivity it poses are better than copper that makes it a good material for making cookware. Furthermore, a bare wire of aluminum is less than the weight of a bare of copper wire which also results in a much more inexpensive alternative.
brick-design-home
Material

Types of Brick

Sep 25 2018
Brick is one of the common building material that is usually used for wall, flooring, decoration or any related masonry construction. Bricks consider as one of the strongest and long-lasting building materials because many of ancient building that still standing or exists right now are mostly made from bricks. They are usually laid and bond in patterns to make a durable and strong structure like a wall, column or beam. The thing that keeps them bond together is usually workable paste like mortar. After the structure is formed, the surface is usually rough and uneven so plastering is needed to smooth out the surface before any painting can be done.
cement-concrete-pouring
Material

Usage of Cement & Concrete

Sep 27 2018
Cement is usually the binder material to produce one of the oldest and most common building material concrete. Concrete is the composition of cement, sand, gravel, and water. It is so versatile that it can be seen anywhere especially in the urban city infrastructure like bridges, station, roads, docks, skyscrapers, buildings, etc. Its usually has a high compressive strength and last very long. The Colosseum of Rome that was largely built with concrete can still be seen and standing even after thousands of years.

Introduction
Concrete mixture can come in a ready-mix form which is manufactured from a batch plant and send to a site or a precast factory either in plastic state or dry state. They are usually transported by heavy machine like an in-transit mixer and the volumetric concrete mixer. Ready-mixed concrete(RMC) is usually more quality assured because they are placed under controlled environment and mix with a consistent amount and quality material. To built a reinforced concrete just add in the rebar steel before pouring cement mixture. Furthermore, on-site mixing concrete usually causes more pollution for the area and required more time and cost for onsite mixing. Another common material of cement is the mortar or refer as masonry cement. This paste material is used to do masonry construction for the brick, block, stone, tile to form a structure like a wall, slab, roof, beam, column, etc. Mortar is usually the composite material of aggregates and cement. Mortar and concrete can be sell in a pack like cement and just adds water to start to use it.
glass-bridge
Material

Architectural Glass and Design

Oct 10 2018
Architectural glass is the usage of glass as the building material. Glass is also referred to as silicate glasses because it is mainly made up of silica and other side minerals like soda and lime. Mixing the mineral, smelt it, shape it according to needs, cooling and finally a glass is formed.

Introduction
Glass is a very popular in many building and home design. This is because of the optical transparency that a glass posses and also flexibility to shape into any form. Glass are differentiated to many types for its versatility. Porcelain and also polymer thermoplastic have many similarities with glass and often become the alternative choices. Glass product is usually heavier than a polymer glass(Acrylic Glass, Polyethylene Terephthalate, Polycarbonate) so the polymer glass act as a lighter alternative glass.